Conversion of the Vacuum-energy of electromagnetic nature into Classical Mechanical Energy.


Conversion of the Vacuum-energy of electromagnetic zero point oscillations into Classical Mechanical Energy

Microsoft Word – Schrift_02_englisch.doc (fourwinds10.com) PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, Wolfenbüttel, Mai – 05 – 2009 Adress of the Author: Prof. Dr. Claus W. Turtur University of Applied Sciences Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel Salzdahlumer Straße 46/48 Germany – 38302 Wolfenbüttel Tel.: (++49) 5331 / 939 – 3412 Email.: c-w.turtur@fh-wolfenbuettel.de Internet-page: http://public.rz.fh-wolfenbuettel.de/%7Eturtur/physik/ Table of Contents 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………2 2. Philosophical background………………………………………………………………………………………..3 2.1. Static fields versus Theory of Relativity ………………………………………………………………3 2.2. A circulation of energy of the electrostatic field ………………………………………………….10 2.3. A circulation of energy of the magnetostatic field ……………………………………………….14 3. Theoretical fundament of the energy-flux…………………………………………………………………20 3.1. Vacuum-energy in Quantum mechanics……………………………………………………………..20 3.2. Connection with the classical model of vacuum-energy……………………………………….22 3.3. New microscopic model for the electromagnetic part of the vacuum-energy…………..23 3.4. The energy-flux of electric and magnetic fields in the vacuum, regarded from the view of QED’s zero point oscillations …………………………………………………………………………….30 3.5. Comparision of the QED-model with other models……………………………………………..33 4. Experiments to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy …………………….36 4.1. Concept of an electrostatic rotor ……………………………………………………………………….36 4.2. First experiments for the conversion of vacuum-energy……………………………………….41 4.3. Experimental verification under the absence of gas-molecules ……………………………..50 4.4 “Over-unity“ criterion for the exclusion of artefacts……………………………………………..57 5. Outlook to the future……………………………………………………………………………………………..68 5.1. Magnetic analogue with the electrostatic rotor ……………………………………………………68 5.2. Rotor with rigidely fixed axis of rotation……………………………………………………………73 5.3. Outlook to imaginable applications……………………………………………………………………80 6. Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..83 7. References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………84 7.1. External Literature ………………………………………………………………………………………….84 7.2. Own publications in connection with the present work ………………………………………..90 7.3. Cooperations and private communication…………………………………………………………..9 2 1. Introduction ( Research) 1. Introduction The name “vacuum“ is usually given to the space, out of which nothing can be taken with known methods. But it is well-known, that this vacuum is not empty, but it contains physical objects [Man 93], [Köp 97], [Lin 97], [Kuh 95]. This is also reflected within the Theory of General Relativity, namely by the cosmological constant , which finally goes back to the gravitative action of the “mere space” [Goe 96], [Pau 00], [Sch 02]. Its name “cosmological constant” indicates, that the universe contains huge amounts of space, which lead to measure able effects, namely it influences the universe’s rate of expansion [Giu 00], [Rie 98], [Teg 02], [Ton 03], [e1]. The crucial question of course is, whether it is possible to develop new methods, which allow to extract something from the vacuum, which could not be extracted up to now – some of those objects not visible directly up to now. Already from the mass-energy-equivalence it is known, that the physical objects within the vacuum correspond with a certain amount of energy. This leads to the question, whether the “vacuum-energy” (i.e. the “energy of the empty space”) can be made manifest in the laboratory. This question was answered positively in the work presented here. The description of the work begins with an explanation of the theoretical concepts in the sections 2 and 3, followed by an experimental verification in section 4, which describes the successful conversion of vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy. Thus, the presented work introduces a new method to extract energy from the vacuum. The described energy conversion arises the hope, that vacuum-energy can be used to supply mankind with energy, because it provides possibility to get energy from the immense amount of space which forms the universe, and which is large enough, that mankind will not be able to exhaust it. First of all, this source of energy is free from any pollution of the environment or from causing any damage to our habitat, the earth.       6. Summary If the Theory of Relativity is taken serious, we have to accept that electrostatic same as magnetostatic DC-fields propagate not faster then with the speed of light, thus with finite speed. This means that the field of every field source together with its energy (of an electric charge of an electret in the way same as the field of a magnet) is not everywhere in the space at the same moment, but it fills the space beginning from its source. This conception does not depend on the question at which moment the field source (for instance the electric charge) has been “born” (which might have been happened at the “big bang”). Thus we see a flux energy coming out of the field source. If this flux of field-energy into the space is analysed quantitatively, a permanent continuous circulation of energy can be found, in which the space (often called “vacuum”) takes energy from the field and supplies field sources from this energy, which the field sources need in order to continue their emission of field-energy. By the way, it should be mentioned that the Standard model of Cosmology accepts the existence of vacuum-energy, even though Cosmology does not know the origin of this energy. The central important point of the present work is to show how some energy can be extracted from this energy circulation, and how this energy extracted from the vacuum can be converted into classical mechanical energy. Therefore a special rotor has been developed, so that the theoretical concept was proven and verified experimentally. The fundamental basics for the practical assembly of a rotor converting vacuum-energy can be found within Electrodynamics: – Classical Electrodynamics, with the additional information of the finite speed of propagation of the static fields, explains the technical working principle of the vacuumenergy rotor. – Quantum Electrodynamics, with the additional postulate, that the waves of the zero point oscillations propagate with the same speed as all electromagnetic waves, explains the energy-density of the vacuum, as far as it is concerned with electric and magnetic fields. Concrete values for the energy-density of the electromagnetic zero point oscillations have been calculated in the present work. The principle has been successfully verified with a measurement of the machine power converted from vacuum-energy ! The practical benefit for the power supply industry free from environmental pollution is obvious: If the principle can be applied on industrial scale, it would not be necessary in future to combust matter in order to supply mankind with energy. 5.3. Outlook to imaginable applications If the present work should only be of importance for fundamental Physics, namely for the verification of the theoretical models described in the sections 2 and 3, then the successful experiments of section 4 would already be the final execution of all tasks. In reality, the possible expected benefit of the work now begins: Rotors for the conversion of vacuum-energy are driven by static fields, so they do not consume classical energy. They convert a type of energy, which was not respected very much up to now (which can be called vacuum-energy) into classical mechanical energy (mechanical rotation). This arises the hope for an application as an inexhaustible source of energy, which moreover has the advantage not to pollute our environment at all. How inexhaustible this source of energy really is, can be seen from the modern standard model of cosmology [TEG 02] [RIE 98], [EFS 02], [TON 03], [and many others], among whose statements we find also the consistency of our universe. According to this standard model the universe consists of – 5 % well known particles, this is all matter, which mankind can see, – 30 % invisible matter, these are elementary particles unknown up to now, – 65 % vacuum-energy. So mankind could have the largest dominant part of the universe as a source of energy – if we learn how to get it. Of course not everybody can imagine that this source of energy begins to be available for mankind (for instance [Bru 06]), but there is also very much substantiated work and there are many serious colleagues, who come to the result, that the conversion of vacuum-energy is indeed possible (for instance [Sol 03], [Sol 05], [Sol 06], but also [Kho 08], [Red 08], [Kho 07a], [Kho 07b], [Put 08], [Ole 99]). A practical and profitable benefit can be achieved from vacuum-energy (of the universe) from the moment, at which vacuum-energy conversion will deliver more energy than its operation consumes. As soon as this condition is fulfilled, vacuum-energy rotors can be of essential benefit for power supply industry as well as for protection of the environment. We want to make some few considerations about the “economical and environmental benefit on industrial scale” now, beginning with a comparison of the two types of rotors presented in the present work: ▪ In the case of the magnetostatic vacuum-energy rotor this benefit presumes (after the endless rotation will work with a fixed axis), that the cooling of the superconducting rotor blades will consume less energy than the rotation inside a magnetic field of a permanent magnet produces. But the cooling of the superconductors requires liquid nitrogen, whose production needs energy. “Economical and environmental benefit” requires very good materials for thermal isolation, i.e. very good cryostats in order to minimize the amount of necessary liquid nitrogen. ▪ In the case of the electrostatic vacuum-energy rotor the main expenses of energy to drive the rotor are for sure not the losses of electrical energy to maintain the electric field and to keep it constant. This is already clear from the very simple setup in section 4.4. Things are going rather like that: “Economical and environmental benefit” requires very good vacuum chambers and energy saving vacuum pumps. 5.3. Outlook to imaginable applications 81 By the way, an interesting alternative for the field source could come under discussion: An electret. This is a material, which can permanently produce an electrostatic field similar to a permanent magnet which permanently produces a magnetic field. Same as the permanent magnet has to be polarized magnetically before producing a magnetic field, the electret has to be polarized electrically before producing an electric field. If it would be possible to find an electret which keeps its polarization for a long time, it could be interesting to investigate, whether such a material can drive an electrostatic rotor for the conversion of vacuum-energy with its field. The production of a suitable field strength should be imaginable, because there are electrets available which can produce many Kilovolts per centimetre. Available electrets can be found rather often among plastics [Wik 08], [Mel 04], as for instance Teflon (=Polytetrafluorethylen), Polypropylen, Polyethylenterephthalat, Polytetrafluorethylenpropylen, Polypropylen, Polyethylenterephthalat (PET-foil), Polyvinylidenfluorid, but there are also remanent dielectrics available such as for instance Siliziumdioxid or Siliziumnitrid. Some of the mentioned materials have been tested in the present work. They have been electrically charged by rubbing their surface, and then they have been held over the rotor of fig.14 as a field source. The tests have not been quantitative. In some cases rotations have been observed, which normally starts rather speedy (this means with a large torque indicating a large field strength) and also ended rather abruptly. In the most cases, the angle of rotation was less than one full turn (less than 360°). This is a typical indication for an inhomogeneous charge distribution on the surface of the electret, which has the consequence that the rotor only finds the position of the minimum potential and comes to a standstill there. In very few cases rotations up to 2…3 turn have been observed [e9] (angle of rotation not being not reproducible). This might happen if the charge distribution on the surface of the electret is not too inhomogeneous. The problem is, that the electret is not a conductor and so the electrical charge can not distribute homogeneously on the surface by alone. We see that there are still many questions open before it will be clear, whether an electret can be used to drive a rotor for the conversion of vacuum-energy. By the way: The electret which allowed a bit more than two full turns was an air-balloon made of an elastomer. It has been charged up by rubbing the surface with artificial leather so much, that electrical breakthrough occurred during the procedure of rubbing. The electrical charge was enough to keep the balloon at the ceiling of a room against gravitation for many hours (which can also be understood with the image-charge method explaining the attractive forces between the balloon (+q) and the ceiling (–q)). This also means, that the charge is not leaving the surface of the balloon. The rotation was reproducible but not the measurement of the angle. This should be due to the inhomogeneous charge distribution on the surface of the balloon, which also had the effect, that the balloon’s capability to stick to the ceiling depends on the orientation of the balloon. If the electret is regarded as a remanent polarized dielectric (in analogy with the permanent magnet, which is a remanent polarized ferroelectric), the electret does not produce an electric current, it does not ionize gas molecules of the air (as soon as the breakthrough is over). This perception is confirmed by the fact that the balloon can stick to ceiling for many hours keeping its electrical charge. This demonstrates the quality of the isolation of the material. An estimation of the energy balance and energy sum is given in [e9] coming to the result that the electrical charge which might flow away from the balloon does not support the rotor with enough electrical power to explain its rotation, already confirming the “over-unity” criterion for the first time. But at that stage of the development, quantitative measurements had not yet 82 5. Outlook to the future been performed with a precision as shown in section 4, thus this result is just mentioned casually. Possibilities to enhance the mechanical power with regard to technical applications: Let us start with the question: How much engine power has been produced with the vacuum energy-rotors up to now ? ▪ For the 46cm -rotor swimming on water (fig.12) the mechanical power was analysed to be -7 P Watt  1.75 10 . From (1.1) it is known, that part of this power might be due to the recoil of gas ions, but the order of magnitude is clear: 7 P Watt 10 have been converted from vacuum-energy. The voltage was in the range of 4 … 7kV . Further enhancement of the voltage speeds up the rotation and thus enhances the mechanical power. ▪ For the 51mm -rotor in the vacuum (fig.19) an estimation of the power was done on the basis of the fact that the attractive Coulomb-force lifts the rotor by about h mm  2…3 when the voltage is switched on. The rotor sinks back by the same height, when the voltage is switched off. This can be observed under air in the same manner as in the vacuum. The mass of this rotor is m Gramm  2.02 , thus the mechanical work for lifting the rotor is about W Joule  40 … 60 . The process takes roughly about t 1 … 2sec. , so the related mechanical power is at least P W t Joule Watt  / 40 / 2sec. 20  (plus the power to surmount the friction due to the viscosity of the oil). The voltage for this test had been 16kV . ▪ The most important rotor (diameter of 64 mm) for the exact power measurement is analysed in section 4.4. It produced a power of  7 1.5 0.5 10 Watt  at a voltage of U kV  29.7 . This is the power value with the most exact measurement, so it can be used for further considerations. ▪ An extrapolation to industrial dimensions (for “economical and environmental applications with benefit”) can be done only roughly in orders of magnitude. More precise values are not available in the moment. Therefore, we can use the proportionalities 2 P U and 2 P R  as shown above: If we assume a voltage at an order of magnitude of 4 U Volt  10 as a realistic presumption and a rotor radius at an order of magnitude of 1 R 10 m , the power at an order of magnitude of 6 P Watt 10 leads to the following imagination: Energy-converting rotor R U 2 2 PUR Realistic presumption (as an average over the estimations shown before) 1 10 m  4 10 V 6 10 W Vacuum allows large breakthrough field strength (with appropriate distance from rotor to field source) 1 10 m  7 10 V 0 10 W Large rotors could be assembled (20 meters of diameter inside a building) 1 10 m  7 10 V 4 10 W Several rotors could be piled up in a cascade (10 rotors one upon the other inside a building) 1 10 m  7 10 V 5 10 W This could lead to dimensions of “economical and environmental benefit on industrial scale”.

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6 responses to “Conversion of the Vacuum-energy of electromagnetic nature into Classical Mechanical Energy.”

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